Resultados oncológicos del manejo neoadyuvante con quimiorradioterapia seguido de cirugía en cáncer de recto localmente avanzado: en el Instituto Oncológico Nacional de Panamá

[Oncologic results of neoadjuvant management with chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer: at the Oncology Institute of Panama]

Autores/as

    Iván Alberto Díaz Dubarrán1, César Díaz Selles2
Publicado: 2023-01-27

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Resumen

Antecedentes y objetivos: Se reportan 720 000 nuevos casos cada año de cáncer de recto. En la etapa localmente avanzada (LARC), la terapia multimodal seguido de cirugía con escisión total del mesorrecto (TME) es el estándar de tratamiento con potenciales beneficios en toxicidad aguda, valoración de respuesta y resecabilidad. El objetivo es describir las características clínico-patológicas y resultados oncológicos en pacientes tratados con quimiorradioterapia neoadyuvante seguido de cirugía radical.

Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo, no experimental, transversal y retrospectivo en donde se analizaron 141 pacientes con diagnóstico de LARC definido como cT3T4N0 o cTXN+M0 programados para tratamiento con quimiorradioterapia neoadyuvante en el Instituto Oncológico Nacional durante el período de enero 2014 a diciembre 2019.

Resultados: Un total de 119 pacientes completaron quimiorradioterapia neoadyuvante seguido de cirugía radical resultando en una resecabilidad de 90.1%. La tasa global de complicaciones posoperatorias fue de 17.4%. La tasa de pCR (La respuesta patológica completa) y desvalorización fue 19.6% y 70.6% respectivamente. La categoría N preoperatoria fue la única variable con un impacto estadísticamente significativo con respecto a la pCR vs no pCR (p = 0.04). La mediana de seguimiento fue de 39 meses, obteniendo una supervivencia global a 5 años de 69% y una supervivencia libre de enfermedad a 5 años de 74.4%.

 

Conclusiones: En el Instituto Oncológico Nacional de Panamá, el tratamiento del LARC con curso largo de quimiorradioterapia seguido de cirugía radical demostró una alta adherencia al tratamiento con una tasa de respuesta patológica completa y control local en concordancia con lo reportado a nivel internacional.


Abstract

Background and objectives: 720,000 new cases of rectal cancer are reported each year. In the locally advanced stage (LARC), multimodal therapy followed by surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard of care with potential benefits in acute toxicity, response assessment and resectability. The objective is to describe the clinicopathological characteristics and oncological results in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by radical surgery.

Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional and retrospective study in which the clinical records of 141 patients diagnosed with LARC defined as cT3T4N0 or cTXN+M0 scheduled for treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy at the National Oncology Institute during the period from January 2014 to December 2019 were analyzed.

Results: A total of 119 patients completed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by radical surgery, resulting in a resectability of 90.1%. The overall rate of postoperative complications was 17.4%. The pCR and downstaging rate was 19.6% and 70.6%, respectively. Preoperative N category was the only variable with a statistically significant impact regarding pCR vs no pCR (p = 0.04). The median follow-up was 39 months, obtaining a 5-year overall survival of 69% and a 5-year disease-free survival of 74.4%.

Conclusion: At the National Oncology Institute of Panama, the treatment of LARC with a long course of chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery with curative intent demonstrated high adherence to treatment with a rate of complete pathological response and local control in accordance with international reports.

Citas

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